Alsa Vs Pulseaudio

It seams that using ALSA may not be possible for my application. Wichtig ist, dass jackd vor Pulseaudio startet, dazu sollte man den Pulseaudio autostart abschalten. Although it works fine on most systems, it does not play well with ARM based devices such as the RaspberryPi. Moreover Pulseaudio provides functionality which cannot be adressed at the sound driver level-for example Pulseaudio enables a networked sound system where sound events (movie/video audio, mp3's dvd/cd audio etc. ) > > So I'm thinking that there must be an issue with the driver that debian has > decided to install and use. When I try a pure alsa installation (no pulse audio) there is severe distortion. PulseAudio is a sound server for POSIX and Win32 systems. The projects (ALSA, OSS, ESD, aRts, JACK, and GStreamer, to name a few) all describe themselves in broad, similar terms, and the panoply of packages reads like a circular mix-and-match game — […]. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. log dmesg aplayL/l codec logs I am having issues playing sounds over HDMI stereo directly to TV. Uncheck this and set the volume as you like it. Once Cadence is installed we have to set the device binded to the driver to Alsa / hw:DSP24. I don't have any need for JACK it seems, so I am wondering if I can just stick to ALSA and not even install JACK next time… unless it's going to improve MIDI. 04 Precise Pangolin, 11. PulseAudio is the middleman between ALSA and sound application. 歴史的な理由からか、Linux の音声入出力は PulseAudio と ALSA の二階建てになっている。ALSA は個々のサウンドカードを担当するのだが、一つのサウンドカードには一つのアプリしかアクセス出来ない。. FreeBSD nuts are going to be impossible to work with due to this and they would try making it as hard as possible to get the job done. Of course, I would set up first, then run and forget I had success with SSH XWindow, it was a bit slow, but usable. Linux Extensions. We also need to tell mpd to use the PulseAudio sound system rather than ALSA. You will see the following. # # PulseAudio is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify # it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by # the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or # (at your option) any later version. I checked journalctl to confirm it was due to pulseaudio. 0 Linux driver in ALSA vs. Although it works fine on most systems, it does not play well with ARM based devices such as the RaspberryPi. 2) it's also possible that there is an audio misconfiguration. ALSA: better device detection. Thank you Kyle Laker VirtualBox 5. PipeWire is a rather new multimedia framework by GNOME. On his blog, Arun Raghavan reports on comparing the performance of PulseAudio vs. If you set it up in /etc/asound. diegocgteleline. pulseaudio is a networked sound server for Linux and other Unix like operating systems and Microsoft Windows. The advantage of this method is the changes can be reversed when PulseAudio needs to be turned on/enabled again. 1 Digitial Output profile. There’s also JACK, which is a recursive acronym for JACK Audio Connection Kit. I mean, not to use alsa, pulseaudio and sndio at the same time. 04 and as it turn´s out 4Front OSS is much faster than the default sound system - but that is caused by pulseaudio. 04 開始,它引進了另一個音訊架構叫 PulseAudio,可是這個新架構跟行之多年的 ALSA 似乎處得不太好。就算到了 Ubuntu 8. An anonymous reader writes "Every now and then a new- or old-media journalist tries to explain to everyone why Linux is not yet ready for the desktop. !default { type hw card 0} ctl. Microsoft. PulseAudio server. If you have a PC runs many applications other than Kodi then using PulseAudio maybe the the best solution. For "using bluetooth on pulseaudio" instruction there needs to be instructions on how to test pulseaudio. However, many Linux distributions now use PulseAudio by default for audio routing and mixing. Never use a specific sink in PulseAudio. As the libao bug shows, this is still not working like it should. 0 "Oreo", LDAC is part of the Android Open Source Project, enabling every OEM to integrate this standard into their own Android devices freely. Audacity can freeze using PulseAudio if playback or recording are started or stopped very rapidly or frequently. Although it works fine on most systems, it does not play well with ARM based devices such as the RaspberryPi. Ubuntu wurde bereits kurz nach der Veröffentlichung der ersten Version auch über die Fachwelt hinaus in den Medien stark beachtet. In this case, dlopen() correctly returns NULL. These variables actually work because they're part of the default also config in. 1 (the latest version as of this writing) from source code, as detailed below. Fedora jam is for audio enthusiasts and musicians who want to create, edit and produce audio and music on Linux. > > I'm running pulseaudio since four or five months now on two of my > desktop systems, both x86 and PPC, and I must say that I'm really > satisfied by it. PulseAudio is not the only audio API on Linux. In order of age, they are 1. blog (This rant was originally part of the live streaming series, but I moved it to a separate article because people got stuck on it instead of responding to the actual subject of the article. I don't have any need for JACK it seems, so I am wondering if I can just stick to ALSA and not even install JACK next time… unless it's going to improve MIDI. It has some advantages over Alsa, such as the capability to stream the output to a server over the network, or volume control over the sources of the audio, and the ability to flexibly put an audio stream to another sink. The JACK API is standardized by consensus, and two. PulseAudio client is PC that acts as source of audio. wine If your application still does not work but has been working in a previous version of wine it is probably a regression. Hello! So I have recently setup a new PC for KVM VGA Passthrough. mpv -fs no will attempt to play a file named no, because --fs is a flag option that requires no parameter. Für die erste Lösung empfehle ich KXStudio, da dort standardmäßig Jack läuft und zudem eine Jack-Alsa-Bridge, sodass man Pulse eigentlich nicht benötigt (obwohl es per default mitläuft). The main configuration file is /etc/opkg. Seriously? If they "get it from the distro" then they already got it with Pulseaudio support. Make sure you uninstall the previous override before trying a new one, otherwise it is unclear which. Alsa - five sound cards and multiple dmixes, and0zej. 39-1+deb8u2 (2017-03-07) i686 GNU/Linux. Pulse is superior in 'give me control over how much of each input channel goes to each output channel', which is the mixing board use case. blog (This rant was originally part of the live streaming series, but I moved it to a separate article because people got stuck on it instead of responding to the actual subject of the article. PulseAudio isn’t the only sound server for Linux. Since ALSA has such an "advanced architecture", its "exclusive mode" should be as "advanced" as ALSA itself. I work as a programmer and a data scientist (or at least I believe so). com by David Winterbottom # Randomize lines. If the global property FIND_LIBRARY_USE_LIB64_PATHS is set all search paths will be tested as normal, with “64/” appended, and with all matches of “lib/” replaced with “lib64/”. 2014 Intel i5 Surface Pro 3), different OS (Ubuntu Linux vs. Hi, Do you run two bluealsa servers (one per each HCI)? bluealsa -i hci0 bluealsa -i hci1 --disable-hsp --disable-hfp I'm not sure if disabling HSP and HFP profiles is required (I've never tested bluez-alsa with more than one HCI), however current implementation (BlueZ implementation) does not allow to specify which HCI should be used with HSP and HFP profile. After struggling with pulseaudio issues that I could not happen to resolve I decided to revert back to alsa with a simple sudo apt-get purge pulseaudio. c: Soft volume PCM Apr 15 12:05:20 work pulseaudio[19799]: [pulseaudio] alsa-util. ALSA is an API for communicating with a soundcard that the kernel exports to userspace, and as such ALSA is:. Since all 3 files are ALSA initializing files, only one is necessary, delete the other two to avoid interference. No audio Raspberry Pi 3 w/Kali If this is your first visit, be sure to check out the FAQ by clicking the link above. For creating / compiling BlueALSA I did use the follwoing commands:. Configuration. Delete the pulseaudio directories from the user’s home: $ rm ~/. This may be a separate problem from the users who are dealing with the PulseAudio vs ALSA problems. Even KDE’s Arts. Ich starte jackd und Pulseaudio mit einem Script beim Einloggen, man kann es auch mit Qjackctl machen. Install Help. Android's AudioFlinger, running them both on a Galaxy Nexus smartphone under Ice Cream Sandwich (Android 4. Gentoo alsa vs pulseaudio. Re: PulseAudio vs. Bluealsa is a direct integration between the Bluez (an implementation of the Bluetooth protocol stack. ALSA : Using Pulse audio server So my "mental image" and my gut tells me that Pulseaudio is currently configured to send its output to the RPI analog audio jack output. Pulseaudio is not a sound card driver system-like ALSA and OSS. 0, and I heard rumor that Firefox dropped support for straight ALSA sound, (non-PulseAudio) in version 52. I have several sound devices on my machine: * camera with microphone * separate microphone * headphones * speakers * HDMI monitor so all is working fine. Since there seems to be no other way to restrict this behaviour, a workaround is to restore the ALSA settings again after PulseAudio has started. This property is automatically set for the platforms that are known to need it if at least one of the languages supported by the PROJECT command is enabled. Then, reload the Alsa driver. People Incidentally, if you're using pulseaudio, you're probably using ALSA also. Alsa - five sound cards and multiple dmixes, and0zej. Hi, Qt5 checks for the. software mixing, which ensures that your application won't prevent other audio applications from working at the same time, in case the hardware doesn't provide mixing support itself. Posts about PulseAudio written by yeupou. The audio device might actually create a larger buffer if it pleases. Title: Ubuntu crashes multiple time due to pulse audio. usb-GeneralPlus_USB_Audio_Device-00-Device. We also recommend creating a batch file so that X410, PulseAudio and Xfce are automatically launched. For quick testing, I disabled lirc(1) to prevent conflict with GPIO26 (GPIO header pin 37). blog (This rant was originally part of the live streaming series, but I moved it to a separate article because people got stuck on it instead of responding to the actual subject of the article. so file that cannot be loaded on a certain machine, due to missing dependencies. Compare Dante Virtual Soundcard VS PulseAudio and see what are their differences Dante Virtual Soundcard turns your computer into a Dante-powered workstation, seamlessly PulseAudio is a sound system for POSIX OSes, meaning that it is a proxy for your sound applications. Only some minor problems or unexpected user experience. An Batocera rufomaculata in uska species han Coleoptera nga syahan ginhulagway ni Degeer hadton 1775. 12 or more is recommended). Part II: PulseAudio Playback. Pulseaudio is not a sound card driver system-like ALSA and OSS. It lets you write simple audio programs in 'C' or C++ that will compile and run on many platforms including Windows, Macintosh OS X, and Unix (OSS/ALSA). It interfaces with Alsa already, using Alsa alone doesn't work as well as with Pulseaudio. Turns out the problem is caused by xfce4-volumed accessing my sound card directly, while the indicator-applet is using pulse audio. If you know anything about one of these plugins, please add it to its page. ALSA is another similar piece of software, but it's not used in LM. Maintainers for pulseaudio are Pulseaudio maintenance team. As for Pulse-vs-alsa, I'm also not interested in debating it. Note: Skywave Linux 4. But it natively supports sending audio through a network too, just as we want! So this post is mostly about setting up PulseAudio for a networked sound setup. 14-0ubuntu20. Before I learned about these MP3 software, I feel it is beneficial to learn about how Raspberry Pi handles the a. Although I've only started using it since version 9, it always worked fine and we can do quite complex workflows easily. 2008, 16:23) Ich komm mit pulseaudio und esd einfach nicht klar. Baby Elsa Butterfly Face Art 4. It is, in essence, a kind of "pseudo sound system". 来自 Collabora 的 Arun Raghavan 将 PulseAudio 移植到了 Android 系统上,并和 Android 系统目前的声音服务器 AudioFlinger 进行了一番比较。 关于 PulseAudio 本站已经多次介绍,不再赘述。AudioFlinger 是 Google 为 Android 系统重头开始设计的音频服务器,既可以工作在 ALSA 之上亦可以工作在由硬件厂商提供的 HAL (硬件. 17 at 17:25 Eventually yes, although it might not end up replacing all of PulseAudio, maybe just bits of it. The encoder library is open source and the implementation for Linux is already present in bluez-alsa and pulseaudio-modules-bt. 1 How does this PulseAudio configuration change work?. Hi, Qt5 checks for the. c: Control: PCM Playback Volume Apr 15 12:05:20 work pulseaudio[19799]: [pulseaudio] alsa-util. Note that there is a problem with pusleaudio and high CPU load. Simpsons 3d Save Springfield 4. These functionalities are mostly related to my Digital Video Transmission experiments. Debian Bug report logs: Bugs in package pulseaudio (version 13. To use these functions be sure to include the pa_linux_alsa. 3 with improvements and bug fixes. This is a known bug in Wine. Moreover Pulseaudio provides functionality which cannot be adressed at the sound driver level-for example Pulseaudio enables a networked sound system where sound events (movie/video audio, mp3's dvd/cd audio etc. There are several ways to upgrade your ALSA sound drivers. 04 開始,它引進了另一個音訊架構叫 PulseAudio,可是這個新架構跟行之多年的 ALSA 似乎處得不太好。就算到了 Ubuntu 8. This topic has been deleted. Hi, Do you run two bluealsa servers (one per each HCI)? bluealsa -i hci0 bluealsa -i hci1 --disable-hsp --disable-hfp I'm not sure if disabling HSP and HFP profiles is required (I've never tested bluez-alsa with more than one HCI), however current implementation (BlueZ implementation) does not allow to specify which HCI should be used with HSP and HFP profile. alsa in anna Games. 3 with improvements and bug fixes. Created attachment 97618 Alsa No Pulseaudio xorg. sudo apt-get -y install alsa-base pulseaudio. Quote:I do not think this is mainly a Kodi issue, but maybe the way it is interfacing with PulseAudio. PipeWire supports containers like Flatpak and does not rely on user groups audio and video, but rather uses a PolKit-like security model asking Flatpak or Wayland for permission to record screen or audio. 3) ALSA support works with Pulse so long as you're doing the right things. You may have to register before you can post: click the register link above to proceed. 歴史的な理由からか、Linux の音声入出力は PulseAudio と ALSA の二階建てになっている。ALSA は個々のサウンドカードを担当するのだが、一つのサウンドカードには一つのアプリしかアクセス出来ない。. It was a bit trickier to do compare to Hardy,…. Also, do not forget to sudo in all cases if needed. I would recommend removing the driver for the onboard sound first and then checking the ALSA configuration in Pulseaudio. pulseaudio-dlna is a lightweight streaming server that makes it easy to stream audio from a Linux computer that uses PulseAudio, to a DLNA / UPnP or Chromecast device in the same network. Re: No Sound in Wine - disable / remove pulseaudio Post by lostandfound » Sat Dec 13, 2008 11:02 am Ah, a Pulse output for Wine would be superb, esp for users of distros which default to Pulse (Ubuntu and Fedora AFAIK, there are a few more). PulseAudio acts as a sound server, where a background process accepting sound input from one or more sources (processes, capture devices, etc. ALSA vs PulseAudio - Latency Concerns. These functionalities are mostly related to my Digital Video Transmission experiments. No more of these pretty audio indicators … If you’re ready, let’s do it. 5, Frameworks 5. PortAudio is a free, cross-platform, open-source, audio I/O library. "dmix" device access), they do not work well enough to support both of these systems reliably. ALSA가 초기에 프로젝트로 시작될 당시에 내세워졌던 목적은, 사운드 카드 하드웨어의 자동 구성 및 리눅스 시스템. Through this utility, you may set different volume levels for each channel, set a latency offset, and control volumes on an application level. I work as a programmer and a data scientist (or at least I believe so). sudo aptitude –purge reinstall linux-sound-base alsa-base alsa-utils linux-image-`uname -r` linux-ubuntu-modules-`uname -r` libasound2. PulseAudio - The bluetooth side of things appears to be working OK and I can pair my Samsung SBH-500 bluetooth headset and tell it to connect the "Headset service" or "Audio sink" seemingly OK, except. Never use a specific sink in PulseAudio. Selon un scénario d'installation typique sous Linux, l'utilisateur configure ALSA pour utiliser un dispositif virtuel fourni par PulseAudio. This is despite the very different computer hardware used (2009 low power Intel Atom "netbook" vs. After struggling with pulseaudio issues that I could not happen to resolve I decided to revert back to alsa with a simple sudo apt-get purge pulseaudio. Kodi only controls this stream's volume - not touching anything systemwide. Kolto is healing water from the planet Manaan, but the source eventually dries up because of the actions of the Selkath, or because of Revan, depending on the choices made by the player. PulseAudio is a general purpose sound server intended to run as a middleware between your applications and your hardware devices, either using ALSA or OSS. For example, game Ironcast does not have sound when being ran via steam, the open source version which is exactly the. 14-1ubuntu0. 0 of the PulseAudio subsystem is out; see the release notes for details. In terms of solving problems like this quickly, IRC is often better. OK, I Understand. 0 and PulseAudio 0. alsa包括alsa driver, alsa lib等pulse audio可以使用alsa driver或者其他驱动接口,实现的一个比alsa lib更加强大的音频服务程序。如果做语音,回声消除,不知道用pulse audio好不好!2014. I wanted quick ways to do a few things I do a lot: turn all microphones off (this is a big one!); switch to the external speakers so I can listen to music; send audio. 04 and as it turn´s out 4Front OSS is much faster than the default sound system - but that is caused by pulseaudio. Also not sure where too put this but #helpdesk Hardware: CPU: Threadripper 2950x MOBO: ASRock X399 Professional Gaming RAM: 32Gb 3466mhz Vengeance Video Cards. Under the hood PulseAudio uses the ALSA-level volume controls. PulseAudio: Audacity's PulseAudio support generally works well. For example, game Ironcast does not have sound when being ran via steam, the open source version which is exactly the. Audacity can freeze using PulseAudio if playback or recording are started or stopped very rapidly or frequently. It can be used to render MIDI input or MIDI files to audio. PulseAudio is a powerful cross-platform (meaning that it can be used on different operating system environments) sound server. Everyone hates PulseAudio. Subject: Re: [jitsi-users] PulseAudio microphone level Thanks, Emil, for letting me know what's happening. es writes "The Linux kernel v2. As the libao bug shows, this is still not working like it should. Re: Alsa - five sound cards and multiple dmixes, and0zej. If this fails, reinstall alsa and pulseaudio: sudo apt remove --purge alsa-base pulseaudio sudo apt install alsa-base pulseaudio. Examples · Play a file on default ALSA device: ffmpeg -i INPUT -f alsa default · Play a file on soundcard 1, audio device 7: ffmpeg -i INPUT -f alsa hw:1,7 caca CACA output device. OS X port of the awesome gqrx SDR software [Update 07/01/2013] Posted by Elias Önal on 30 September 2012, 1:47 pm A while ago I already managed to compile gqrx on OS X, but then Alexandru Csete decided to move on to a new audio backend called pulseaudio. Ubuntu wurde bereits kurz nach der Veröffentlichung der ersten Version auch über die Fachwelt hinaus in den Medien stark beachtet. some settings make pulseaudio startup muted. This property is automatically set for the platforms that are known to need it if at least one of the languages supported by the PROJECT command is enabled. 来自 Collabora 的 Arun Raghavan 将 PulseAudio 移植到了 Android 系统上,并和 Android 系统目前的声音服务器 AudioFlinger 进行了一番比较。 关于 PulseAudio 本站已经多次介绍,不再赘述。AudioFlinger 是 Google 为 Android 系统重头开始设计的音频服务器,既可以工作在 ALSA 之上亦可以工作在由硬件厂商提供的 HAL (硬件. conf per redirect ALSA a PulseAudio , sotto sono altre cose che ho provato, che (generalmente) non sono riuscite a get una corretta miscelazione con l'audio dell'applicazione (solo la prima linea rilevante dello script loopchuck. Make this card the system default ALSA device in /etc/asound. Alsa Yeah, you are probably looking at Analog, Digital, and one or more HDMI choices. See also "PulseAudio Removal"section to detach it from alsa. By continuing to use Pastebin, you agree to our use of cookies as described in the Cookies Policy. 0-24 Ditto, same issue on the Lenovo x230. pulseaudio-dlna is a lightweight streaming server that makes it easy to stream audio from a Linux computer that uses PulseAudio, to a DLNA / UPnP or Chromecast device in the same network. 04 and as it turn´s out 4Front OSS is much faster than the default sound system - but that is caused by pulseaudio. If you set it up in /etc/asound. Everyone hates PulseAudio. 0-1091 Description: Header files related to Linux kernel version 4. Starting from ALSA library 1. It’s advisable to copy all these values inside the script, so they can be executed after reboot in case of configuration loss. 7 Linux debian 3. In terms of solving problems like this quickly, IRC is often better. ALSA is another similar piece of software, but it's not used in LM. I am also a hobby vlogger with interests in many areas like music, art, science and more. 4-headers-5. Otras páginas relevantes son ¿Cómo se relacionan ALSA y PulseAudio? - Super Usuario o Pulseaudio vs ALSA - Ubuntu Forums (ver también Pulseaudio-diagrama ). * Added the old portal module to make the Camera portal work again. Specs: OpenSuse 13. Everyone hates PulseAudio. ufomekaniker. Stop comparing ALSA to PulseAudio. diegocgteleline. 8 in Fedora 8 on 32bit box after changing the setting to "/dev/dsp". Created attachment 97618 Alsa No Pulseaudio xorg. I'll also include some additional information during my installation of pulseaudio, such as my ease of installation experience and some preliminary information on other peoples' opinions and recommendations. Then, reload the Alsa driver. ) is created. Winter Bus. ALSA vs pulseaudio issues) I know the pi "sees' all six Audio Adapters, but it cant seem to stream to more than two at once - what could this be?. You can use either the armel or armv6hf files for the RPi3 or 0, however the armv6hf is the build meant for those boards. But why reroute, when mplayer supports PA directly. Howdy ho, how are you doing? I've been a happy Amarok user, forwarding the music without alterings to ALSA and from there my sound card, the ESI [email protected] audio capture (Linux only; PulseAudio, JACK, or ALSA) network stream playback (HTTP, HLS, RTMP, RTSP, MMS, UDP) frei0r video generator plugins (e. d to blacklist a sound device linux, howto blacklist a sound device on linux, Linux: alsa vs pulseaudio, ubuntu and alsa, use alsa instead of pulseaudio linux, why choose alsa instead. I don’t remember since when Ubuntu used to come installed it by default, but for the recent versions such as: 12. 5 Table de version : *** 1:11. Note: Skywave Linux is an operating system using bleeding-edge technology to robustly access broadcast, utility, military, and amateur radio signals from almost anywhere in the world, including countries with restrictive internet environments. 1 PulseAudio vs ALSA. pulse-cookie $ rm -r ~/. You need to configure pulseaudio to use the seconad ALSA card. Re: Alsa - five sound cards and multiple dmixes, Clemens Ladisch. 0 "Oreo", LDAC is part of the Android Open Source Project, enabling every OEM to integrate this standard into their own Android devices freely. OSS4 justs works, has less overhead, a smaller latency, a much nicer API, and a much much much better sound quality. JACK PulseAudio isn't the only sound server for Linux. So it’s better to avoid following as described in reference[1]. alsa_input. I am running Firefox 53. PipeWire is a server and user space API to deal with multimedia pipelines. We mix a couple of these streams. (Also PulseAudio, although I think -- to the extent that I > understand how this all is supposed to work -- that that runs on top of ALSA, > so if ALSA is providing low audio, PulseAudio won't help. FWIW: I notice that a lot of material written about Alsa vs. pavucontrol. ), that is able to mix and redirect those sources to one or more sinks (sound cards, remote network PulseAudio servers, or other processes). It has since become a standard part of the Linux audio stack and the modern version is fine. PulseAudio is a sound system that's available on many linux-based machines. JACK can use ALSA, PortAudio, CoreAudio, FFADO and OSS as hardware back-ends. CONTENTS IN DETAIL ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xvii ALSA Applications Turning PulseAudio and Phonon Off. The Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) provides Linux computers with audio support. Compare Dante Virtual Soundcard VS PulseAudio and see what are their differences Dante Virtual Soundcard turns your computer into a Dante-powered workstation, seamlessly PulseAudio is a sound system for POSIX OSes, meaning that it is a proxy for your sound applications. ) The forum traffic seems to implicate McASP/DMA interrupt issues. La cuestión que queda ahora es que PulseAudio aparentemente salta todos los de esta instalación y directamente las salidas de mi tarjeta de sonido, por lo que el ecualizador funciona en programas de apoyo a ALSA-salida (no Firefox, etc. Now I want start pulseaudio on bluetooth, I follow the examples in BlueZ5 and A2DP Sink on Freescale i. Wichtig ist, dass jackd vor Pulseaudio startet, dazu sollte man den Pulseaudio autostart abschalten. See also "PulseAudio Removal"section to detach it from alsa. While setting up a Raspberry Pi to play streamed music using UPnP, I have had quite a bit of trouble understanding how to configure the sound on my Raspberry Pi. 在此比较中,PulseAudio的省电功能得到了明显强调。AudioFlinger引起的每秒唤醒次数大约是PulseAudio的三倍。实际上,在较旧的硬件上,经过优化的驱动程序比Galaxy Nexus的情况要糟得多(我很感谢在Nexus S或其他任何具有ALSA支持的设备上运行类似测试来证实这一点的报告)。. JACK PulseAudio isn't the only sound server for Linux. In this article, I present a brief overview of the ALSA Project and its software components. ALSA: Kernel: ALSA -> dmix -> Userland: app1, app2, app3 With just pure ALSA, you need dmix to mix multiple apps. Super Drift 3 4. Step 1: Install. NOTE: Out of the box, Festival doesn't work with ESD (the default sound server up to Gutsy), PulseAudio (the default sound server since Hardy) or ALSA, so some changes are required to get it up and running. OpenAL Soft is an LGPL-licensed, cross-platform, software implementation of the OpenAL 3D audio API. In particular, JACKv2 and its jackdbus is the path of least resistance. Alsa/PulseAudio vs OSSv4 Hello all, I'm very happy with my Arch desktop right now, but I've noticed that my ALSA/Pulseaudio setup had high latency (obviously, but the Pidgin bleep has a 4-6 second delay, so one might say _very_ high). The System Wide DSP Guide and alsa plugin docs should point you in the right direction for alsa. !default { type hw card 0} ctl. PulseAudio is a sound system that's available on many linux-based machines. They are used while configuring ALSA in the. Il est disponible depuis le noyau Linux 3. There are several functions in the numpy and scipy libraries that can be used to apply a FIR filter to a signal. Pulse is a sound server daemon used by the modern Gnome desktop on UNIX-like systems. This is a known bug in Wine. It is currently Wed Jun 24, 2020 7:24 pm. It's to my understanding that ALSA is relatively low-level, and talks directly to the hardware, while PulseAudio sits on top of ALSA as a service. I found a number of guides that recommended that the /etc/pulse/default. 0-5) in unstable. Once JACK starts, PulseAudio detects its presence, and loads a module that connects PulseAudio as a client of JACK. En segundo lugar, hay dos maneras de acceder a un dispositivo de hardware de ALSA - uno a través de la interfaz hw: y otro a través de la plughw. 12 or more is recommended). Maintainers for pulseaudio are Pulseaudio maintenance team. If you feel that you have no use for the features provided by PulseAudio, you can either use pure ALSA or replace it with a different sound server. They are used while configuring ALSA in the. I: [alsa-sink-bcm2835 ALSA] module-loopback. Entries are sorted chronologically from oldest to youngest within each release, releases are sorted from youngest to oldest. 80ms is just silly, non practical, and not even noticeable by the average user. sudo apt-get -y install alsa-base pulseaudio. 3) ALSA support works with Pulse so long as you're doing the right things. It is intended to be an improved drop-in replacement for the Enlightened Sound Daemon (ESOUND). The problem is no audio. Although it works fine on most systems, it does not play well with ARM based devices such as the RaspberryPi. sudo alsa reload killall pulseaudio Once completed,Pulseaudio will automatically probe it and provide you the option of selecting a 5. PulseAudio sits between the sound source and the Linux kernel and thus has somewhat higher latency than direct use of ALSA. 095 D-BUS: Dienst ist verfügbar (org. The release version of Ardour is optimized, and the debug trace output is disabled. D'autres pages pertinentes sont: comment ALSA et PulseAudio se racontent-ils? - Super utilisateur ou Pulseaudio vs ALSA - Ubuntu Forums (voir aussi Pulseaudio-diagram ). They are used while configuring ALSA in the. PulseAudio is a sound system that's available on many linux-based machines. The projects (ALSA, OSS, ESD, aRts, JACK, and GStreamer, to name a few) all describe themselves in broad, similar terms, and the panoply of packages reads like a circular mix-and-match game — alsaplayer-esd, libesd-alsa, alsa-oss, alsaplayer-jack, gstreamer-alsa. 0-4-686-pae #1 SMP Debian 3. com by David Winterbottom #:3# # commandlinefu. A daemon (also known as background processes) is a Linux or UNIX program that runs in the background. 0-5) in unstable. But as you said, it works well with kxstudio preconfigured set up routing all the pulseaudio and alsa through the snd_aloop daemon etc. 2020-06-16 - Antonio Larrosa - Update to version 0. ace of base - all that she wants. As Dependencies I had to install the following packages: apt-get install libasound2-dev dh-autoreconf libortp-dev bluez bluetooth bluez-tools libbluetooth-dev libusb-dev libglib2. The first workshop will be an introduction to the open source ecosystem and attendees will get acquainted with some basic Linux audio principles; different work-flows (monolithic vs modular), ALSA/JACK/PulseAudio, most used and most useful applications and maybe a bit about plug-in frameworks. com by David Winterbottom # Randomize lines. So it’s better to avoid following as described in reference[1]. ), that is able to mix and redirect those sources to one or more sinks (sound cards, remote network PulseAudio servers, or other processes). If you need more fine-grained control over your ALSA-level volume, follow the steps below: 1. This app by default shows show devices sound events as autodetect. On Linux both use ALSA for real output in the end. PulseAudio forces every application to use PulseAudio. It has some advantages over Alsa, such as the capability to stream the output to a server over the network, or volume control over the sources of the audio, and the ability to flexibly put an audio stream to another sink. Linux Extensions. Angrybirds VS Zombies 3. ) The forum traffic seems to implicate McASP/DMA interrupt issues. Linux mint is working flawlessly for me for years. The release version of Ardour is optimized, and the debug trace output is disabled. pulse-cookie $ rm -r ~/. 2 PulseAudio client libraries ii libpulsecore9 1:0. This is despite the very different computer hardware used (2009 low power Intel Atom "netbook" vs. 2 (don't kill me, it's just my in_case backup) delivers video with sound. When I try a pure alsa installation (no pulse audio) there is severe distortion. 14-0ubuntu20. Current Audacity releases now support only PortAudio v19. Pulseaudio is a sound server, and sits on-top of ALSA and provides a layer of abstraction that allows for more advanced functionality than ALSA can provide alone. jeg har kikket meget på siderne via google, men fandt kun 20 sider lange forklaringer, og intet direkte svar. alsa audio vs pulseaudio. more like OSS4 vs ALSA and Pulseaudio vs Jack, since the latter two use ALSA or OSS as their backend. 0-4-686-pae #1 SMP Debian 3. BTW, Audacity does not use PulseAudio. Recall this problem went away during January, but re-appeared after a recent. From scipy. PulseAudio is, as mentioned above, a parasite layer. To use pulseaudio in OpenRC, following packages could be installed: pulseaudio pulseaudio-alsa pavucontrol After installing above packages, /etc/pulse/client. conf example linux, how to use modprobe. Posts about PulseAudio written by yeupou. 1 and sends it out to an ALSA device. this is how you can solve the problem on: Debian 8. I would like to have pulseaudio running in the. 1 GStreamer plugin for PulseAudio ii libpulse-browse0 1:0. ASIO in Windows). OS X port of the awesome gqrx SDR software [Update 07/01/2013] Posted by Elias Önal on 30 September 2012, 1:47 pm A while ago I already managed to compile gqrx on OS X, but then Alexandru Csete decided to move on to a new audio backend called pulseaudio. Once JACK starts, PulseAudio detects its presence, and loads a module that connects PulseAudio as a client of JACK. It has some advantages over Alsa, such as the capability to stream the output to a server over the network, or volume control over the sources of the audio, and the ability to flexibly put an audio stream to another sink. 1 pulseaudio vs alsa products found. 04 LTS (64). It allows you to do advanced operations on your sound data as it passes between your application and your hardware. Furthermore the OP wants to share audio between different users, not just one user. Free implementation of the Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) I decided to drop the mbedtls dependency and not follow community/freerdp as mbedtls is a community package that is less maintained than the core/openssl package, see release dates vs PKGBUILD commits. Since we've "peeled-off" most of everything else and we still see this it is becoming a concern for the project. 5, Frameworks 5. This article deals with installing, configuring, and maintaining a general purpose Wine environment on Gentoo. As PulseAudio is a ESD replacement, the ESD plugin can work in cases where PulseAudio support is missing or broken. It means that Pulse manages all audio streams within the system. PulseAudio: fix incorrect outstream software_latency. How am I able to record sounds within the desktop without resorting to PulseAudio or other sound servers?I am using Debian Linux. reddish last edited by. Note: Skywave Linux 4. The MIDI events are read from a MIDI device. You can also change the SRC to another better one, like SoX, it's possible to set in pulseaudio. Debian Bug report logs: Bugs in package pulseaudio (version 13. The kernel invokes alsa via modules during systart; pulseaudio is an afterthought. Pulseaudio vs alsa Pulseaudio vs alsa. Über die Website von Canonical ließen sich kostenlose Ubuntu- und Kubuntu-CDs bestellen; heutzutage ist dieses Angebot kostenpflichtig. com by David Winterbottom #:3# # commandlinefu. In Linux audio the driver is built into ALSA which talks to Jack or Pulse Audio. LM uses Pulseaudio as its audio server. In winecfg in "audio tab" it's empty and i get:. 14-0ubuntu20. Linux has two different audio systems, these are PulseAudio and Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA). Playing flash video on Google Chrome had no sound. 04_alsa pulseaudio. Recording audio to a pulseaudio stream / sink input, and playing from stream on demand. If an option changes and its parameter becomes optional, then a command line using the alternative syntax will break. ALSA and PulseAudio have a symbiotic relationship in Ubuntu. La cuestión que queda ahora es que PulseAudio aparentemente salta todos los de esta instalación y directamente las salidas de mi tarjeta de sonido, por lo que el ecualizador funciona en programas de apoyo a ALSA-salida (no Firefox, etc. Usage Internals Recipes Outlook PulseAudio vs. PulseAudio is a general purpose sound server intended to run as a middleware between your applications and your hardware devices, either using ALSA or OSS. ALSA can handle things like basic multiplexing perfectly well (although it might possibly need a plugin). ALSA: better device detection. Mar 12 17:28:29 pi pulseaudio[5984]: [pulseaudio] sink-input. !default {type plug slave. To enable this input device during configuration you need libpulse-simple installed in your system. Looking at the GNOME wiki, it seems that Pulseaudio > is the stronger candidate between alternatives, and that it allows for > quite a lot of nifty things. Si vous voulez vous faire une idée de ce qu’il est possible de faire avec Kalliopé avant de poursuivre vôtre lecture, voici une petite vidéo de démonstration en français. Check the sound by running multimedia player such as vlc. more like OSS4 vs ALSA and Pulseaudio vs Jack, since the latter two use ALSA or OSS as their backend. But this recent piece on OSS got me thinking - what is the attraction of…. Alsa: Other: Privileged access to your Linux system as root or via the sudo command. Here are a couple of basic observations about using JACK and PulseAudio together: While PulseAudio is running, JACK cannot access the same soundcard that Pulse is using. sh --no-upload generates. 03 Конвертация Chrome-дополнения для запуска в Firefox. Hi, Do you run two bluealsa servers (one per each HCI)? bluealsa -i hci0 bluealsa -i hci1 --disable-hsp --disable-hfp I'm not sure if disabling HSP and HFP profiles is required (I've never tested bluez-alsa with more than one HCI), however current implementation (BlueZ implementation) does not allow to specify which HCI should be used with HSP and HFP profile. Correct me if I'm wrong. I checked journalctl to confirm it was due to pulseaudio. BTW, Audacity does not use PulseAudio. Note that there is a problem with pusleaudio and high CPU load. No sound after reboot/login with PulseAudio and Alsa. Figure 2: Overview of the PulseAudio sound system providing acoustic echo and noise reduction (AENR) service to an application (with 4 microphone channels). This sets up pulseaudio to be used as an alsa device by default so applications use it without any additional configuration. Winter Bus. pulse-cookie $ rm -r ~/. Notice, that ALSA [Advanced Linux Sound Architecture] was named "advanced" for ideological reasons. 1 How does this PulseAudio configuration change work?. 0-24 Ditto, same issue on the Lenovo x230. This is despite the very different computer hardware used (2009 low power Intel Atom "netbook" vs. Besides the desktop improvements and USB 3. It's to my understanding that ALSA is relatively low-level, and talks directly to the hardware, while PulseAudio sits on top of ALSA as a service. It has some advantages over Alsa, such as the capability to stream the output to a server over the network, or volume control over the sources of the audio, and the ability to flexibly put an audio stream to another sink. PA seems to be heavier than JACK - being more complex induces more overhead. PipeWire is a project that aims to greatly improve handling of audio and video under Linux. Otras páginas relevantes son ¿Cómo se relacionan ALSA y PulseAudio? - Super Usuario o Pulseaudio vs ALSA - Ubuntu Forums (ver también Pulseaudio-diagrama ). Posted den: 12. It consists of a set of kernel drivers, an application programming interface (API) library and utility programs for supporting sound under Linux. 4 LTS Release: 18. Quote:I do not think this is mainly a Kodi issue, but maybe the way it is interfacing with PulseAudio. Flash is (on my Ubuntu machine) the last part that still uses ALSA and not PulseAudio. Subscribe to this blog. I: [alsa-sink-bcm2835 ALSA] module-loopback. Remi Lorriaux - ELC 2011 15 Choosing a board for our project Deciding factors: Pick a board that is supported in the latest mainline kernel with real-time patches (2. ) y JACK, ya que el dispositivo de salida puede ser especificado. 5 # L(0) to L(0) at 0. 2014 Since 2. com by David Winterbottom # Randomize lines. pulse-cookie $ rm -r ~/. Oder mit apturl installieren, Link: apt://alsa-oss. The main developer is Wim Taymans. ALSA stands for the Advanced Linux Sound Architecture. conf can be edited and following line can be REMOVED: autospawn = no After making above changes, one can logout and log back in and check if pulseaudio is running: $ pgrep -l pulseaudio 2006 pulseaudio. PulseAudio usually overwrites the ALSA settings — for example set with alsamixer — at start-up, even when the ALSA daemon is loaded. 0 of the PulseAudio subsystem is out; see the release notes for details. Currently running Kubuntu 20. PulseAudio解决办法也是提供一个混音服务. > The ALSA vs. The main developer is Wim Taymans. Note that there is a problem with pusleaudio and high CPU load. 2 PulseAudio sound server core ii pulseaudio 1:0. (04-26-2016 09:24 AM) lowen Wrote: But I tried the ALSA backend, and PulseAudio got in the way a couple of times, and I experienced latencies and drops while mixing. Find out how to install Batocera to Raspberry Pi boards, compare Batocera vs RetroPie and Batocera vs Lakka, plus more in this Batocera review and hands-on look. 1 Digitial Output profile. And the advantages of using JACK vs Pulse Audio. : PulseAudio sucks!. But all I know is if your run aplay -l and it displays your bluetooth speaker, then JACK will work just fine. !default { type hw card 0} ctl. Connect to a specific PulseAudio server, specified by an IP address. ) and the alsa sound library. Linux has two different audio systems, these are PulseAudio and Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA). Linux mint is working flawlessly for me for years. Install ALSA packages $ sudo apt-get install alsa-base alsa-tools alsa-tools-gui alsa-utils alsa-oss alsamixergui libalsaplayer0. #:1# # commandlinefu. PulseAudio usually overwrites the ALSA settings — for example set with alsamixer — at start-up, even when the ALSA daemon is loaded. Perhaps if pulseaudio were loaded at the end of the alsa startup procedure? That doesn't address the reason audacious reverts to alsa when it can't find a running instance of pulseaudio. OSS (Oldest) 2. The System Wide DSP Guide and alsa plugin docs should point you in the right direction for alsa. Unfortunately, I tried several times to play the sound on a simple protocol player but the sound does not work and the application shows me the message "unable to stream" and also made a mistake in pulseaudio I do not know what the reason and I tried on Termux and Useland but anyway thank you for helping me , Note : I'm new to using Linux and I use the languages translator to speak with you in. Fedora jam is for audio enthusiasts and musicians who want to create, edit and produce audio and music on Linux. So I decided to take another look as I wanted to start adding some audio to my experiments. monitor is the output of the internal soundcard on the pi. 04 Preguntado el 10 de Mayo, 2020 Cuando se hizo la pregunta 184 visitas Cuantas visitas ha tenido la pregunta 1 Respuestas Cuantas respuestas ha tenido la pregunta Solucionado Estado actual de la pregunta. But sadly, still stuck with Pulse Audio!! Just one example, Skype has become huge internationally, i would expect to be able to download Skype(which is at least available from the Mint repo's, unlike Ubuntu), go to the sound settings and just like my favorite distro or Windows, hit the drop down boxes for input and output and choose which. 04 Настройка PulseAudio и ALSA для достижения максимального качества звука-13. 那么, 重采样问题怎么解决呢?. 18 RC3 Has Been Released Version 1. Compare Dante Virtual Soundcard VS PulseAudio and see what are their differences Dante Virtual Soundcard turns your computer into a Dante-powered workstation, seamlessly PulseAudio is a sound system for POSIX OSes, meaning that it is a proxy for your sound applications. Actually there is a github project (pulseaudio-dlna) that streams wifi to dlna renderer speakers (such as I have). Pulseaudio; Applications. A sound server is basically a proxy for your sound applications. Howdy ho, how are you doing? I've been a happy Amarok user, forwarding the music without alterings to ALSA and from there my sound card, the ESI [email protected] ), that is able to mix and redirect those sources to one or more sinks (sound cards, remote network PulseAudio servers, or other processes). Looking at the GNOME wiki, it seems that Pulseaudio > is the stronger candidate between alternatives, and that it allows for > quite a lot of nifty things. Starting from Android 8. Figure 2: Overview of the PulseAudio sound system providing acoustic echo and noise reduction (AENR) service to an application (with 4 microphone channels). Über die Website von Canonical ließen sich kostenlose Ubuntu- und Kubuntu-CDs bestellen; heutzutage ist dieses Angebot kostenpflichtig. Hi ! I use wine 1. 它可以用来作为一种简易改进的开放声音后台(ESD)替换。PulseAudio声音服务器试图以全新的架构来提供新的声音处理架构,希望能像ALSA统一底层那样一统声音应用领域! 二、安装. PulseAudio vs. There are several ways to upgrade your ALSA sound drivers. Also entweder PulseAudio mit Jack als Device zu starten oder Jack mit Pulseaudio als Device. Alsa - five sound cards and multiple dmixes, and0zej. 531251] usb 4-1: new full-speed USB device number 2 using ohci-platform [346859. ALSA: Midi system: ALSA raw devices Midi system: ALSA sequencer. The Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) provides Linux computers with audio support. Microsoft. c: Could not peek into queue The solution is to uninstall PulseAudio 8 and then build and install PulseAudio 11. Remember to save the file and run pulseaudio -k each time you change the number. Web/Graphics Designer & Network-Admin, coder. 04 Natty Narwhal, 10. управляющих pulseaudio daemon, которые можно установить (архив с 11,х): pavucontrol - PulseAudio Volume Control paprefs - PulseAudio Preferences pulseaudio-utils - PulseAudio utilities paman - PulseAudio Manager alsa-plugins-pulse (-32bit) - Pulseaudio Plug-In for the ALSA Library PulseAudio Equaliser ***. First remove the MPD PulseAudio setting. I am using Pulseaudio and that works, but input is not supported with Pulse. 2 PulseAudio client libraries (zeroconf support) ii libpulse0 1:0. A sound server is a background process accepting sound input from one or more sources (processes, capture devices, etc. 80ms is just silly, non practical, and not even noticeable by the average user. c: Control: PCM Playback Volume Apr 15 12:05:20 work pulseaudio[19799]: [pulseaudio] alsa-util. Soweit bist Du ja schon gekommen. analog-stereo. We mix a couple of these streams. ) > > So I'm thinking that there must be an issue with the driver that debian has > decided to install and use. reddish last edited by. de • Einige Rechte vorbehalten Lizenz • Kontakt. bat”, stored in c:/wsl. Debian Bug report logs: Bugs in package pulseaudio (version 13. Conventions # - requires given linux commands to be executed with root privileges either directly as a root user or by use of sudo command $ - requires given linux commands to be executed as a regular non-privileged user. So if I have time I'm going to draw small image but if not seek some from net 😉 But currently path from Portaudio (if you have Pulseaudio and ALSA-Pulseaudio driver) is Portaudio → ALSA-API → ALSA-Pulseaudio-drv → Pulseaudio → ALSA-output and. 0-34 FWIW: it is always useful to state the exact Plasma version and distribution when asking questions in this forum, makes it easier for us to help. 531251] usb 4-1: new full-speed USB device number 2 using ohci-platform [346859. Mientras que tratando de obtener mi sonido a trabajar, me preguntaba acerca de los roles de ALSA y PulseAudio. You will see the following. Maintainers for pulseaudio are Pulseaudio maintenance team. Name: linux-oracle-5. How To: Remove PulseAudio & replace it with ALSA (Mint 10) Post by mads » Sat Apr 16, 2011 11:28 am The following How To was originally posted on the thread: Is Pulse Audio the worst tragedy in the history of Linux?. It also includes all of the biggest audio applications, including Ardour, Audacity, Qtractor, Musescore, Frescobaldi, all the. ALSA setup: Apr 15 12:05:20 work pulseaudio[19799]: [pulseaudio] alsa-util. Alternatively, you may install the package "pavucontrol" which allows for advanced PulseAudio sound settings. After struggling with pulseaudio issues that I could not happen to resolve I decided to revert back to alsa with a simple sudo apt-get purge pulseaudio. If prebuf is 0, the read index may be larger than the. For example, game Ironcast does not have sound when being ran via steam, the open source version which is exactly the. 18 RC3 Has Been Released Version 1. Re: PulseAudio vs. 0 of the PulseAudio subsystem is out; see the release notes for details. The encoder library is open source and the implementation for Linux is already present in bluez-alsa and pulseaudio-modules-bt. /etc/asound. PulseAudio 0. Perhaps vlc should pull pulseaudio as dependency on installation. Through this utility, you may set different volume levels for each channel, set a latency offset, and control volumes on an application level. ALSA is an API for communicating with a soundcard that the kernel exports to userspace, and as such ALSA is:. Linux Extensions. Many people like to say how something has 0 or <10ms latency (that PulseAudio guy in that other thread is a real riot), as Hannu points out, measuring something that's 20ms vs. Question 3) Is there any tweaking/tuning that we may be missing?. I don't know because I don't have any bluetooth speaker. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. de)" on alsa_output. It seams that using ALSA may not be possible for my application. Under the hood PulseAudio uses the ALSA-level volume controls. I agree with that too - it doesn't provide good sound quality out of the box, it is a buggy, unreliable mess and in general,. As Dependencies I had to install the following packages: apt-get install libasound2-dev dh-autoreconf libortp-dev bluez bluetooth bluez-tools libbluetooth-dev libusb-dev libglib2. All Ubuntu Packages in "trusty" Generated: Tue Apr 23 09:30:01 2019 UTC Copyright © 2019 Canonical Ltd. a no removable of Pulseaudio packages and configuration which in turn not remove ubuntu-desktop package which is needed for future distribution upgrade). Ubuntu wurde bereits kurz nach der Veröffentlichung der ersten Version auch über die Fachwelt hinaus in den Medien stark beachtet. 531251] usb 4-1: new full-speed USB device number 2 using ohci-platform [346859. On his blog, Arun Raghavan reports on comparing the performance of PulseAudio vs. libsoundio source code is now pure C, no C++ mixed in. When Pulse Audio is installed the sounds play fine in stereo. If that's the case, I wonder if we should still try to fix this for ALSA-only users. 它可以用来作为一种简易改进的开放声音后台(ESD)替换。PulseAudio声音服务器试图以全新的架构来提供新的声音处理架构,希望能像ALSA统一底层那样一统声音应用领域! 二、安装. Although it works fine on most systems, it does not play well with ARM based devices such as the RaspberryPi. ) The forum traffic seems to implicate McASP/DMA interrupt issues. This page is an occasionally updated summary of the status of support in Audacity for the current v19 version of the PortAudio Audio I/O library. #:1# # commandlinefu. When it does, I need to hard reboot by holding power button. 0-4-686-pae #1 SMP Debian 3. It's to my understanding that ALSA is relatively low-level, and talks directly to the hardware, while PulseAudio sits on top of ALSA as a service. I can get things working by installing the extra PulseAudio Volume Control and then forcing the laptop to use the undetected Headphones: listed as "Port: Headphones (unplugged)" -- and of course, they are plugged in. PulseAudio is not the only audio API on Linux. Pulseaudio; Applications. ALSA is an API for communicating with a soundcard that the kernel exports to userspace, and as such ALSA is:. Plus it's near impossible to identify inputs and outputs. Firefox-ESR 52 vs. Linux Extensions.